AIR SAFETY PROCEDURES MANUAL Revision 4 November 2014 Page 1 of 8 PREFACE The Air Safety Procedures Manual has been prepared for use and guidance of officers. HSM Online Overview Course. This course consists of 13 self-paced informational modules that can be taken in any order depending on the student’s prior. Security It is patently impossible to discuss social engineering or the automation of a society, i.e., the engineering of social automation systems (silent weapons.
TOPIC & HYPER-LINK HUMAN FACTORS CONTENT & FOCUS; Human Factors Definition: The National Academy of Sciences 1992 defintion of 'Human Factors' is, ' Human Factors in the Process Industries Blog. Tony Atkinson leads the ABB Consulting Operational Human Factors team. He has spent over 30 years in the process. Study to become a flight attendant, aircraft engineer or advance your pilot training or engineering career.
The Dirty Dozen refers to twelve of the most common human error preconditions, or conditions that can act as precursors, to accidents or incidents. Aviation safety is a term encompassing the theory, investigation, and categorization of flight failures, and the prevention of such failures through regulation.
Cockpit Design and Human Factors. The evolution of cockpit design is credited to the advancement of Human Factors as a formal discipline.
The definition of HF by Koonce (1. The study of the human’s capabilities, limitations, and behaviors and the integration of that knowledge into the systems we design for them with the goals of enhancing safety, performance, and the general well- being of the operators of the system”Early Day Cockpits. The very early generation of flying was based solely on see (visual) and feel and was a relatively physical task. Control of the aircraft was solely . Therefore Cockpit design was very basic with very few instruments to provide the pilot with information on aircraft and engine performance, cockpits normally consisted of three or four major instruments and there were only controls for basic flight. Cockpit Layout (WW1 to 1. During the war, flying advanced in that aircraft were required to fly without visual cues, such as at night or in cloud, furthermore pilots were not only required to maneuver the aircraft but to navigate, fire weapons, deliver troops and perform other various duties.
As the requirement for increased roles for the pilot were increased, so were the number of controls and instruments in the cockpit. As written by Salas and Maurino (2. More and more information placed inside the aircraft supplemented or replaced cues outside the aircraft”. This trend continued onto airliners up to the 1. The increased number of flight and engine instruments resulted in the contrary to what designers had intended.
There was limited integration of controls and instruments, and instead of increasing awareness to the pilot, workload and stress levels were increased. Wiener and Nagel (1. Human Factors influence on cockpit design and Layouts. The complexity in instruments displaying aircraft systems and performance resulted in high stress levels and error rates. Examples of this were missed signals, misinterpreted information and limited detection and recognition of a number of instruments by the flight crew (Weiner and Nagel, 1. Data shows that there was an increasing trend in the number of displays (Instruments & gauges) up until the 1.
Wiener & Nagel, 1. The reduction of the number of instruments in cockpit designs coincided with the perception and human information processing focus that dominated the HF era in aviation around that same time (Salas and Maurino, 2.
It also coincided with the introduction of next generation aircraft such as the Boeing 7. A3. 10. In modern next generation cockpits the studies of these HF topics are reflected in design. There is not only a significant reduction in the number of instruments but the display of information in the form of glass cockpits reflects the improved understanding of the human cognitive process and the application to this in design of the systems (the objective of HF). Design Considerations for the Modern day Cockpit.
Anthropometry. Introduction. Anthropometry, which literally translates to . It is not feasible to design a cockpit for every individual in the world, rather a normal distribution is used where an aircraft is designed for the 5th to 9. NASA, 1. 97. 8. Maintenance access for engineers. Length of arms and legs.
Reach envelope for control locations. Sitting eye height.
Seat adjustment to establish correct eye datum. Sitting height, sitting knee height and thigh thickness. Control column yoke clearance, desk and console design. Standing height. Ceiling and door height limitations, overhead panel reach. Sitting elbow rest height/ length. Armrest location. Body width and thickness.
Fuselage, passageway, door and hatch size limitations. Thigh length. Seat length.
Foot size. Foot location, space and controls (rudder and brakes)Muscle strength. Control feedback forces (real or artificial). Service and maintenance requirements. Portable equipment weights. Design eye position/ Eye Datum. The design eye position, also known as eye datum or design eye reference point (DERP) is one of the key aspects of cockpit design. A pilot should be able to view all the main cockpit instruments while maintaining a reasonable view of the outside world with minimal head movement (FAA, 1.
The instruments should be located high enough for easy viewing but low enough so that it does not obstruct the view of the runway ahead during take off and landing.
Postgrad growth area: Engineering psychology. From the moment most people wake to when they shut their eyes for the night, they're immersed in a technology- saturated world. In addition to everyday interactions with home appliances, computers and telephones, people find themselves at the mercy of technology when they drive their cars, ride the subway to work, board an airplane or check into the hospital for surgery. How well a particular system is designed has a lot to do with whether each of these experiences is smooth, safe and positive.
The rapidly growing field of engineering psychology offers a wealth of opportunities to students who are interested in the interaction between people and machines, tasks and environments, says Deborah Boehm- Davis, Ph. D, a former president of Div. Applied Experimental and Engineering). Moreover, the practical applications have their own rewards, which Boehm- Davis found when she tested a prototype navigational device for a car company.
The purpose of engineering psychology is to deliberately make someone's life better. Past- president Ronald G. Shapiro, Ph. D, manager of IBM's Enterprise Technical Learning Curriculum. Further, a product or system that is well designed from the start will help eliminate frustrated customers and costly redesigns, increasing the company's bottom line. Technologies, a human factors consulting company.
Engineering psychologists help design medical equipment and the layout of operating rooms to minimize the risk of errors, she says. Because engineering psychologists often work in private industry, the job outlook closely tracks the economy.
However, demand has been steady, and at times, very high, says Boehm- Davis, a psychology professor at George Mason University. Some of her students have received job offers while still on their internships, she notes. WHAT YOU CAN DO: Engineering psychologists work in a variety of environments, including academia, the government and private industry. Whether their specialty is human factors, ergonomics, human- computer interaction or usability engineering, engineering psychologists aim to improve lives. By understanding the abilities of the pilot, we can design away safety problems.
Department of Transportation, the Federal Highway Administration and NASA. In addition, they consult with architects and designers of consumer products like telephones, cameras and home appliances. EARNINGS OUTLOOK: Salaries are highest for engineering psychologists in private industry and lowest for those in academia, with government work falling somewhere in between, according to the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society's (HFES) 2. Salary and Compensation Survey. Doctoral- level engineering psychologists working at for- profit businesses earned an average of $1.
With the same level of education, average salaries were $1. Master's- level professionals earned $9. Starting salaries across all sectors range from $4. Consultants with Ph. Ds who work in industry fared the best, earning $1. HOW TO GET THERE: About 7.
American universities offer HFES- accredited graduate programs in engineering psychology, according to their online listing. Students come into these programs with a wide range of undergraduate degrees, including psychology, engineering, computer programming and product or Web design, says Boehm- Davis. Although master's- level workers can find good jobs in industry, she adds, engineering psychologists with a Ph.
D often have higher salaries and greater control over their projects. Academic and some government positions also require Ph. Ds. Graduate students take courses in human cognition, development, learning and perception. In addition, they should seek out classes in research methods and statistics, says Patricia De. Lucia, Ph. D, a psychology professor at Texas Tech University.
For example, both Prada and Smith attended flight training sessions at a commercial airline to inform their communication with pilots and learn about cockpits firsthand. To design medical equipment that incorporates what psychologists know about depth perception, De. Lucia once observed a gall bladder removal. Engineering psychologists also recommend cultivating a professional network by volunteering with related societies and organizations, like Div.
HFES and the Usability Professionals' Association, attending conferences and getting real- life experience through internships with the military or consumer- product corporations.
Airmanship, flight discipline and human factors. The late Tony Hayes, once CFI of Brisbane Valley Leisure Aviation Centre — and the inaugural holder of the RA- Aus Meritorious Service Award — published this airmanship interpretation.
Many things form our attitudes and we need to consider these if we wish to see airmanship as it really is — get a handle on it and make it our own. Toyota 4K Carburetor Manual Download. That is easy enough, but before we start — accept that airmanship is something that grows. These four are then applied by personal attitude. The application of airmanship can be defined to three areas. In this situation, even adequate knowledge and skill is being superseded by an emotive form of confidence.
Responsibility will be expressed by understanding that sufficient knowledge and skill was present to build the machine to an airworthy standard, but there is also equal knowledge and skill present in the operations area to ensure that the proving flights are conducted safely, responsibly and with validity.